Maciej BILEK, Joanna PYTKO and Stanisław SOSNOWSKI
SHELF LIFE OF BIRCH TREE SAP
Birch tree sap popularity is increasing and a number of sources point to the numerous health benefits of their consumption. Rarely, however, attention is drawn to the short shelf life of birch tree sap and there are few researches on this subject. In this paper, shelf life of five batches of birch tree sap was evaluated. They were stored at room temperature and in refrigeration. Most favorable parameter for the assessment of changes in birch sap was its turbidity, and to a lesser degree the so-called “optical density” and pH. On the basis of the obtained results, it was found that birch sap at room temperature can be stored for no longer than one day, while in refrigeration of about six days.
Maciej BILEK, Kinga STAWARCZYK, Michał GOSTKOWSKI i Ewa CIEŚLIK
CADMIUM CONTENT IN THE TREE SAPS FROM PODKARPACIE REGION
Tree saps have been collected for centuries to obtain nutritional and medicinal benefits. Contemporary researches are confirming the validity of folk customs applications of tree saps, mainly due to high concentrations of metallic elements, classified as minerals. But the question arises, whether with their high content in tree saps, at the same time, there are also heavy metals. In the present study, the cadmium content in the saps of eight species of trees has been estimated. The reported content did not exceed the permissible standards. However, taking into account that the tree saps were collected from the environmentally clean area, the obtained results may indicate the potential risk to consumers receiving and consuming saps from positions exposed to industrial and agricultural pollutions.
Tomasz CIESIELCZUK, Czesława ROSIK -DULEWSKA and Grzegorz KUSZA
EXTRACTION OF PHOSPHORUS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE ASH AND SEWAGE SLUDGE – PROBLEM ANALYSIS
Phosphorus as an essential element for agricultural production becomes scarcer and scarcer due to the depletion of phosphate rocks. It seems necessary to implement the cheap and effective recovery methods of this element from all kinds of waste. A particularly valuable source of phosphorus are the ashes from thermal incineration of sewage sludge and dry sewage sludge. Optimization of sequential extraction of phosphorus contained in the ash from the thermal treatment of sewage sludge and dry sewage sludge allows for the selection of an efficient and technologically uncomplicated method of phosphorus recovery, while maintaining the low content of heavy metals, which are one of the main reasons for the limitations in the use of sludge and sludge ash in agriculture. The effectiveness of these processes, combined with the amount of sewage sludge in Poland, will allow for the calculation of the recoverable amount of phosphorus which can go back into biological circle, thus reducing the consumption of the natural phosphorus resources.
Zbigniew W. CZERNIAKOWSKI
CITY FARMS AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR UNWISE URBANISATION
Probably the majority of the residents would admit that the quality of life in the city mostly depends on the accessibility of green areas. However, as proved by the experience of many cities in North America, Europe and Asia, urban farming, which conduct agricultural production, may play crucial part. Most often it is about growing fruits and vegetables, sometimes also energy crops. Urban farming can take the form of green rooftops, vertical gardens or conventional farms woven into the city’s structure. It seems that the development of this type of economic activity (often taking very interesting forms of social movements) can contribute to the retardation of adverse climate change, environmental quality or the epidemic of lifestyle diseases related to diet. Certainly, solutions like this will make valuable products available for a broad group of local consumers.
Tomasz DUDEK and Agata BANAŚ
PROJECT DESIGN OF A VANTAGE POINT IN MATYSOWSKIE FORESTS IN RZESZÓW AS AN EXAMPLE OF USING WOODLAND OF DIFFERENT OROGRAPHY AROUND TOWN FOR RECREATION
Urban forests play a number of functions other than those related to production, these include functions connected with recreation, education, climate, landscape and nature protection. The main purpose of the study is to present a concept design for development of recreational urban forests growing on the slope of Matysowskie Forests in Rzeszow. The extremely varied terrain configuration provided inspiration for designing a 1.600 metres long trail. At the altitude of 312 metres above sea level the trail ends with a viewing terrace located on the top of an artificial six-metre tall mound. This layout allows a view of Rzeszów skyline and makes it possible to avoid artificial structures dominating over the landscape. The proposed trail and viewing terrace in Matysowskie Forest in Rzeszów will definitely provide the public with a possibility of being in contact with nature, without the necessity of travelling far away from the city.
VEGETATION OF A MULTIVARIANT MODEL EXPERIMENT ON COAL COMBUSTION WASTE DEPOSITS. PART III
An experimental study of the share of plants in the reclamation of combustion waste deposit from coal engineering was performed in the period of 2011-2016, fertilised with four types of compost and sewage sludge. Combustion waste deposits were contained in cylindrical containers with 80 cm in diameter (0.5 m2 area) and 100 cm high. Annually, during the vegetation period, the quantity and quality condition was assessed as well as the yield of fertilised plants. Great species diversity of significant biomass was observed. High reclamation effectiveness of combustion waste deposit was observed in the majority of fertilisation options. Biological reclamation of combustion waste sites with the use of soil formation deposits and vegetation is becoming more and more commonly applied and developed. To that end, many experimental studies have been carried out (model, lysimeter, field), one of which being the presented experiment.
Elżbieta GRYGORCZUK-PETERSONS and Józefa WIATER
DECOMMISSIONING OF ILLEGAL WASTE DUMPING IN THE NORTH-EASTERN POLAND
The aim of the study was to identify, define methods and techniques and the costs of liquidation of “dumps” of waste on the territory of Klukowo commune in Podlaskie. Before starting the field observations a tabular identification sheet was drawn and a cartogram in the form of a network of squares illustrating the researched area and the number of wild landfills. Cartographic presentation was made in AutoCAD (2013). As a result of the field research in the area of Klukowo commune there were 13 illegal landfills found, which occupied about 0.03% of the commune area. Due to the threat to the environment resulting from the existence of illegal dumps their liquidation was offered. The estimated cost of the project will be about PLN 95 300.00.
HOW TO SPEED UP THE CHANGES OF PUBLIC AWARENESS TO RETARD THE RATE OF BIODIVERSITY LOSS
Biodiversity matters for all spheres of human life and activity yet biodiversity loss has accelerated to an unprecedented level. It is impossible to save biodiversity and enhance its benefits for people without public awareness and knowledge of biodiversity issues. Pursuant to the decision of the Conference of the Parties of Convention on Biological Diversity, the Informal Committee on Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA-IAC) was established to provide Secretariat of CBD with advice on the implementation of the programme of work on CEPA with respect to specific on-going work and facilitating the development of a global communication strategy and several activities during the second half of United Nations Decade on Biodiversity. The publication presents a direct report from the author who as the member of CEPA-IAC participated in its meeting on the trends in global education for biodiversity and development of tools and approaches relevant for the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 in the context of the different Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
Janina KANIUCZAK, Małgorzata NAZARKIEWICZ, Edmund HAJDUK, Jan GĄSIOR and Stanisław WŁAŚNIEWSKI
GEOTHERMICS AND RESOURCES PROTECTION
Geothermal energy has been developing rapidly lately. Is is used in central heating systems (direct application) and for the production of electricity. The dynamic development of geothermal energy is associated with both the increasing environmental pollution and the search for alternative solutions which can replace conventional energy sources such as coal, oil or natural gas. It is especially important for countries like Poland, where the power industry is mainly based on coal, which is the source of significant carbon dioxide emissions.
ABRYS PUBLISHING HOUSE AS AN EDUCATIONAL TASK. DISSEMINATION OF RETARDATION IDEA AS AN ELEMENT OF ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION. PART I
Municipal Publisher ABRYS has issued tens of thousands of copies of magazines (Communal Review, Clean Energy, Municipal Green, Recycling, Waterworks – Sewage System, Eco-Manager) providing professional information, shaping opinion and presenting controversies. It also has thousands of hits on the web pages of various applications developed by ABRYS, complementary to, not a substitute for these magazines. They fit fully in the implementation of environmental education as an interdisciplinary teaching and learning at all formal and informal levels. Its aim is to form full consciousness and wake up the society interest of interrelated economic, social, political and environmental issues, enabling all citizens to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to improve the environment and create new patterns of behavior, attitudes, values and beliefs of individuals, groups and societies, taking into account the concern about the quality of the environment. In order to achieve these objectives, it is necessary, among others, to introduce professional environmental education in all spheres of social life taking into account and using cultural, ethical and religious values, to provide public access to natural environmental information, including taking action in the field of retardation. However, what is most important is the recognition that environmental education is a prerequisite for changing the consumer model of the society. So far, these objectives have not been achieved. The institutions of our country do not provide an alternative to the model of the consumer society, as they are all based on its functioning.
Michał KOPEĆ and Krzysztof GONDEK
THE IMPORTANCE OF LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS AND PROBLEMS OF TIME PASSING IN RESEARCH METHODS USED IN NATURAL SCIENCES
Earth’s resources are a closed set and it is important to consider them in the context of the passage of time. As the world around us is a dynamic system, an analysis of the time approach as a variable of the system to explain the phenomena and processes in the natural sciences, is becoming indispensable. Scientific explanation may relate to short but unlimited periods of observation or experimentation. Long-term studies broaden the scientific knowledge about the elements that are invisible in the short term, or set limits to the influence of the time factor. The results of the research are cognitive in basic science and practical for many applied sciences. Methodology of long term studies is very specific. Difficulties in conducting such studies are due to changes in the environment or research tools, but also the approach and interpretation of the researchers. The paper presents examples and approaches to long-term studies, namely cross-sectional designs and longitudinal surveys as well as the implementation of such studies. Despite the lack of continuous, spectacular scientific discoveries, long-term follow-up studies are important. A thorough understanding of their methodology must refer not only to the researcher conducting the experiment today, but also to the recipient of the results. Putting in the hands of a responsible researcher the resolving a particular problem also means the acceptance of waiting for a long time for the results. This is particularly important for the retardation of the conversion rate of natural resources.
Joanna KOSTECKA, Justyna KOC-JURCZYK and Mariola GARCZYŃSKA
CONSIDERATIONS ON SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT
Municipal waste management is an important element of sustainable development. Presence of such waste in the environment poses numerous hazards, such as pollution of surface and ground waters, as well as air and soil ecosystems; moreover waste constitutes feeding grounds for insects, birds and rodents. Waste is subject to biochemical transformation and the environment may be affected by the products of decomposition such as: carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, aldehydes, organic acids, methane and other compounds. Therefore, it contributes to greenhouse effect, acid rains and ozone depletion. Preventing production of waste is the most effective way to reduce its environmental effects. Many objects which we dispose of may in fact be reused, others may be recycled. Protection of living natural resources against waste is an important problem not only for scientists; its importance should also be recognized by administrative and political bodies, as well as members of the civil society which should initiate efforts aimed at retardation of the speed of flora and fauna species extinction. In the new financial framework for the period of 2014-2020 there is emphasis on innovations. These are also important for retardation of the negative effects of waste in the broadly understood environment.
Joanna KOSTECKA and Grzegorz PĄCZKA
HOW BIONICS COULD INSPIRE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS?
Bionics is an interdisciplinary science investigating the structure of organisms, the ways they function and the possibility to adopt these solutions in engineering (particularly in automation), and to model the structure of technological systems on such organisms. It is used in numerous engineering designs (aircraft, parachute, photovoltaic solar cells). Watching the tricks of nature is highly enlightening and useful. The study discusses the mission of landscape architects, and provides examples of adaptations based on natural solutions; it also involved designing survey questions designed to assess opinions of students of landscape architecture regarding the need to promote sustainable development and biological diversity and to copy solutions observed in nature. It was also emphasized that in order to maintain stability of the existing ecosystems friendly to human beings it is necessary to follow the example of nature and reduce the waste of resources and energy, and to widely accept the upcoming era of scarcity.
INCREASING SOCIAL PARTICIPATION IN SPATIAL PLANNING: POLISH EXPERIENCE
One of the main weaknesses of the Polish development system is a low level of integration (i.e. low level of social and human capital, low level of trust). It results in limited social participation and consequently weakens the effects of activities. Up to 2014 social participation in development projects and programmes was limited to formal consultations preceding the final decision on some intervention, only when it was required (like in European cohesion Policy). Today (2014-2020) the EU expects that partnership will become a permanent and lasting element of individual Policies and Programmes in each phase of work (starting from programming, through implementation to closing up and evaluating the intervention).
Anna MAZUR-PĄCZKA, Agnieszka PODOLAK-MACHOWSKA and Joanna KOSTECKA
DIDACTICS OF PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE – COHOUSING
The role of “Philosophy of Nature” as a humanizing course was described. The aim of the elaboration was also to draw attention to the phenomenon of cohousing as effective in building sustainable development. The topic (as a part of the subject “Philosophy of Nature”) was proposed as a start for considerations leading to the acceptance of the retardation of the rate of natural resources transformation. Using a questionnaire, the knowledge on cohousing was examined among some selected groups of students of the University of Rzeszow. This study may encourage the respondents to rethink the ways of reducing the negative human impact on the natural environment.
Bazyli POSKROBKO and Joanna KOSTECKA
THE RETARDATION IN SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS
The paper presents retardation in the context of the selected arguments of philosophy which should be the basis for the economy of sustainable development. It shows the relationship between the new management philosophy and social awareness, with particular emphasis on the psychological and mental barriers. The authors show: (1) the category of management and wealth in the economy of sustainable development, (2) factors affecting the development of the consciousness of this new philosophy of management, and (3) the process of change in the perception of retardation by the society. Thinking about the further creation and development of the foundations for the sustainable management of natural resources (and human resources) several examples of national and international programs are presented. Because their main task is to change the way of thinking and everyday behavior, they can be useful for promoting the retardation of resources, strengths, values and ecosystem services of the environment.
Beata RASZKA and Krzysztof KASPRZAK
TOURISM IN THE PROTECTION PLAN OF WIELKOPOLSKA NATIONAL PARK – CASE STUDY
Protective activities in Wielkopolska National Park take place through the implementation of the protection plan. This document presents the way of making national park areas available for tourism, recreation and sport. According to the Nature Conservation Act for the national park a plan of protection and implementation shall be drawn up and presented by the Park director. The security plan is drawn up for 20 years with regard to: the characterization and assessment of the nature state, the identification and evaluation of existing and potential internal and external threats, characterization and evaluation of social and economic conditions, analysis of the effectiveness of existing methods of protection, characterization and assessment of development. Work on drawing up a security plan consists of: assessment of resources, objects and elements of nature, landscape values, cultural values, existing and potential internal and external threats, developing the concept of conservation, formations and elements of nature and cultural values, as well as the elimination or reduction of existing and potential internal and external threats. The security plan for the national park contains issued like: identification of areas and places available for education, tourism, recreation, sports, amateur fishing and a decision on how they become available. Until the protection plan for the national park is established, the supervisor (i.e. the minister responsible for the environment) draws up draft protection tasks. Leisure and tourism in each national park requires obtaining of certain minimum of culture, regardless of existing legislation and planning documents related to its protection. Protecting the park is also the problem of ethical and aesthetic issues associated with exploring aspects of life in all its richness and desire to know and better understand the world.
Zofia SOKOŁOWICZ and Jadwiga TOPCZEWSKA
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY IN ECOLOGICAL FARMS IN THE ASPECT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
The objective of the current paper was to estimate the scale of animal husbandry in ecological farms in Poland. The share of ecological farms increased from 2.7% in 2010 to 3.82% in 2014 in Poland. The number of organic producers reached 21020 farms after their conversion at the end of 2014. Only 17.37% of ecological farms confirmed their involvement of animal husbandry. Disparities between the provinces were significant, ranging from 5.3% in Lubuskie to 72.61% in Malopolskie. The largest group of livestock keepers from amongst the ecological producers was made up of those that kept dairy cattle (9.1%),followed by beef cattle (6.8%) and layers (10.3%), whilst the least were those keeping goats and hoses. The largest herds (20.6 individuals), in respect of dairy cattle, were kept by ecological farmers from Zachodniopomorskie.
Secondary School Students’ Environmental Concerns: a Case Study from Slovenia
Students’ environmental concerns were investigated using a questionnaire with 12 items. The study sample comprised 410 first and second year students of general upper secondary school from NW Slovenia. Results provide evidence that students’ concerns for the consequences of environmental damage formed three correlated factors organized around self and family, all people, and the biosphere. The highest was students’ environmental concern for the biosphere, followed by concern for self and family, and concern for all the people. Gender differences were significant in concerns for all people and for the biosphere; female students were more concerned than male students. Age differences were significant in concerns for the biosphere in favour of older students. Since humanity is facing challenges in balancing our demands and ecological limitations, the results of this study could be beneficial for further development of environmental education.
Sebastian WÓJCIK-JACKOWSKI, Katarzyna SOBEK and Maciej BILEK
TIME-RELATED VARIABILITY OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF DRINKING WATER FROM THE DUG WELLS, AND THE EXISTING AND POSTULATED SOLUTIONS TO ENSURING THE WATER QUALITY FROM “PRIVATE” WATER INTAKES
The work is based on the results of the dug wells water analysis from Albigowa. Taking into account the annual monitoring which indicated a high variability of physicochemical parameters, the paper shows the need for the necessary changes to the current approach to “private” water supplies. This indicates the desirability of the appropriate application, if necessary, of the binding regulations regarding individual water supplies serving less than 50 people or providing less than an average of 10 m3 of water per day for a commercial activity or a public facility