Anna BUGNO-POGODA and Tomasz DURAK
SUSTAINBLE DEVELOPMENT IN FORESTRY
Forests in Poland constitute nearly 30% of the country’s area. It is an area that performs a variety of biotic, protective, production and reproductive functions. This article introduces the concept of sustainable development in forestry. It presents a model of multifunctional forest management ensuring sustainable forest reproduction as well as ways of planning activities in the forest.
Jan DAMPC, Jagoda ŻYWKO and Roma DURAK
ALIEN SPECIES OF APHIDS IN POLAND
There are around 800 species and subspecies of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea), of which nearly 40 are alien to the local fauna. The number of new species has been growing, with phytophages often transferred accidentally with plants imported to Poland. Increase in the average annual temperature contributes to the widening of the occurrence range of thermophilic species of aphids influencing their life cycle and bionomy.
Monika GRYCH, Justyna Łukasz JURCZYK and KOC-JURCZYK
VEGETATION OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS
The purpose of this work was to present the conditions and possibilities of phytoremediation of municipal waste landfills. Reclamation of municipal waste landfills states a serious problem in Poland, involving a large number of objects of small area, previously operated as local municipal landfills, and also, successively closed ofquarters on main, regional installations. Biological reclamation is an indispensable part of restoring landfill sites to the environment, however, in the case of this type of objects, it does not always succeed, due to the presence of unfavorable products of waste bioconversion, inproper substrate preparation or incorrect selection of species. The paper summarizes the basic principles of introducing vegetation onto municipal landfill.
BIODIVESITY IS HUMAN WELFARE
The paper presents an understanding of the word “biodiversity” and the concept of biodiversity along with its three basic levels, giving adequate examples. Biodiversity as human welfare was emphasized that guarantees a decent life for man, as well as economic development and leisure, while at the same time signaling threats resulting from improper human activity, especially in agriculture.
Joanna KOSTECKA, Agnieszka PODOLAK, Mateusz MICHALICHA i Agnieszka MARCELA
PROJECTS IN ACTIVE EDUCATION
Education for sustainable development (ESD) provides knowledge and touches on the problems of the impact of our everyday life on a global scale. To protect ecosystems and improve the quality of human life, we must implement new social and personal good practices in everyday life. Education in this area is difficult and multifaceted because it must affects the social, ecological and economic sphere of the ongoing life. Among other things, it must include activities to change relationship between man and nature for a better. Educational projects widely used around the world it would appear to be a good educational method. These projects involve a large group of participants in the series of activities planned for a long time. Creating social bonds, they are a chance to introduce knowledge and numerous skills. St. Francis of Assisi was a personage who should be a role model of care and respect for nature. Nowadays he is considered a patron of among others naturalists and foresters. Nature education, being a part of education for sustainable development, should not to be based only on rigid schemes and the vastness of definitions. It ought to be based on specific skills and form the culture on everyday behavior. Like St. Francis, it is necessary to sensitize the beauty and usability of the entire nature and break some unfavorable stereotypes. This paper presents the advantages of educational projects and describes one – based on the idea proclaimed by St. Francis of Assisi. This project aims to bring the St. Francis figure closer, contains an offer to activate people related to the church for sustainable development and makes them aware of valuable species of animals and plants in the immediate human environment.
Mariola KREMPA, Natalia MIAZGA, Mariola GARCZYŃSKA and Grzegorz PĄCZKA
WASTE MANAGEMENT AND BIODIVERSITY
Although after the entry into force of changes in the municipal waste management system, between 2012 and 2016, there was an approximately 200% increase in the amount of separately collected waste, still a large mass of waste are deposited in landfills or illegal wild landfills. They are a threat to biodiversity in ecosystems. Especially dangerous appear to be in this respect beverage packaging waste: plastic and glass bottles, aluminum cans, etc. This type of waste does not only reduce the aesthetic value of the landscape, but as numerous authors show, it poses a threat to invertebrates and small vertebrates. The survey analyzed the knowledge of on-line survey respondents on selected aspects of waste management and awareness of biodiversity threats from waste.
Marta PISAREK, Marta GARGAŁA, Tomasz OLBRYCHT and Monika KUCHARSKA-ŚWIERSZCZ
AGROTOURISM AS A SUPPORT OF BIOLOGICAL VARIETY
The ongoing degradation of the natural environment has led to a search for a balance between human activity and the condition of the natural environment. Response to environmental needs is the idea of sustainable development, which is a part of the concept of tourism supporting biodiversity. Therefore, an example of good practice is to propose a model agritourism farm, which will include the presence of beneficial organisms. Their presence on the farm is possible by the proper selection of plants and the dependence of small architecture elements for the needs of free-living animals.
Mateusz MICHALICHA and Cezary MITRUS
BIRDS AS INDICATORS OF URBAN BIODIVERSITY
Urban areas affect the animals that inhabit them mainly by: very high density of people and buildings, anthropogenic food resources and higher average annual ambient temperature. Some species have begun to colonize cities, while others quite the contrary, on account of lack of natural convenient habitats avoid urban agglomerations. Animals are often used as an indicator of biodiversity. Especially birds, as ubiquitous animals, attracting attention with colorful feathering and singing, sensitive to environmental changes are very good indicator of biodiversity. Changes in their abundance and distribution inform us about quality of the entire natural environment. Trying to protect the biological diversity of animals, we must follow the changes that occur in the abundance and distribution of the species and the threats to which they are exposed colonizing the cities. Nowadays in Poland at least, 12 urban avifauna atlases and 2 non-atlas form monographs have been published. So far, none of the atlas of Polish cities and towns has been repeated, and the data contained in some dates back to the 1980s. The changes that took place at that time, significantly changed the situation of birds in the urban environment. The reason for the decline abundance are: limiting the number of breeding sites, removing their natural refuges by cutting shrubs and trees, noise barriers and construction works on the modernization of buildings. The big problem is also stray cats, which decimating a significant populations of birds. This article focuses on regional aspects of biodiversity in urban area on the example of avifauna. Protective efforts at regional scale can translate into the success of species richness in the global aspect.
Agnieszka MOŁOŃ and Roma DURAK
BIOPESTICIDES AS PLANT RESISTANT STIMULATORS
BIOPESTICIDES AS PLANT RESISTANT STIMULATORS The current concept of the development of sustainable agriculture and implementation of integrated plant protection technologies is based on limited use of chemicals in favour of natural means. A key role is played here by biopesticides of insecticidal, bactericidal, fungicidal and herbicidal activity. Under pathogenic influence, a plant may activate defensive reactions of and/or systemic range. Recently, more and more attention has been paid to inducing plants’ defensive reactions. This paper presents defensive mechanisms and resistance stimulators in plants and groups of compounds of plant origin showing insecticidal activity.
Karolina MROCZEK and Janusz MROCZEK
TRADITIONAL POULTRY PRODUCTS AS AN ELEMENT OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN FARMING ESTATES
Biological diversity, including the wealth of animal breeds, constitutes the most valuable biological and economy-related heritage of humanity. By signing the Convention on Biological Diversity our country assumed responsibility for conservation of the natural wealth, including protection of nativelivestock breeds. They are an important component of balance in agricultural ecosystems and their protection comprises utilitarian and ecology-related aspects. Countries of the European Union have for years followed the policy of promoting food products manufactured by other means than advanced technologies and large industrial plants. One of the related priorities involves cultivation of local traditions, for instance by protecting original agricultural products and local foods characterized by their place of origin and traditional methods of production. Farming based on native breeds provides raw materials for production of traditional foods and is beneficial from the environmental viewpoint, which is extremely important for example in the context of sustainable development.
Szymon PAJĄK and Tomasz DURAK
PLANTS REACTION ON THE ANATOMICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR LEVEL FOR ENVIRONMENTAL GLOBAL CHANGES
Plants are organisms deprived of the ability to actively move. The adaptations they created during the evolution allow them to survive adverse habitat changes. The recent decline in the diversity of plants on the globe is caused by changes in the environment too quickly. These processes lead to the extinction of plant populations without giving them time to create appropriate adaptations. In connection with the observed decline in biodiversity, it seems that research into the possibilities of adaptation of plants to changes in habitat conditions is extremely important for understanding the functioning of ecosystems and the protection of endangered species. The article focuses on the main mechanisms adapting plants to environmental changes such as: drought, decrease in soil pH and increase in temperature on the Earth.
Jan SIUTA and Bogusław ŻUKOWSKI
CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF AGRICULTURAL LAND CAPABILITY CLASSES IN POLAND IN THE YEARS 1975-2000
Under the Decree of 2 February 1955 on land and building registration system (Journal of Laws No 6, item 32) the Council of Ministers issued the Ordinance of 4 June 1956 on land typology (Journal of Laws No 19, item 97), specifying as follows: lands to be subject to typology using soil capability classes include farm and forested land as well as land under water catchment systems and the typology is to be done in an uniform manner for the whole country, based on the principles laid down by the Ordinance, and using the Table of soil capability classes given in the attachment to this Ordinance. The article presents a synthesis of the area (hectares) and percent contributions of soil capability classes in Poland, by land use types and voievodeships, including: arable lands, fruit orchards, durable meadows and pastures in the years: 1975, 1990 and 2000, developed on the basis of detailed data provided by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography.
Łukasz SZCZUROWSKI and Krzysztof OKLEJEWICZ
RFLORISTIC DIVERSITY OF THE POST-MANORIAL PARK IN RZESZÓW-ZALESIE
In the territory of the post-manorial park in Rzeszów-Zalesie the occurence of 250 species of vascular plants were inventoried, of which 187 were native and permanently established taxa. Permanently established species were represented by 19 species of archaeaophytes and 16 species of kenophytes, including 13 invasive species. There were 57 cultivated species, 3 ergasiophygophytes and 3 species of uncertain status in the Polish flora. An unpreseved interspecific hybrid has been also discovered. The level of synanthropization of the studied area was determined by using indicators of the antopogenic transitions of flora: anthropophytysation (WAn = 38%), archaeophytysation (WAr = 10,16%), kenophytysation (WK = 8,56%), modernization (WM = 45,71%) and level of lability of flora (WF = 1,2%).
Marcin WIOREK and Stanisław KUNTELSKI
WEEVILS (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONOIDEA) AS INDICATORS IN NATURE VALORISATION OF ANTHROPOGENIC ENVIRONMENTS IN POLISH PART OF THE WESTERN CARPATHIANS
The paper presents species richness and abundance, domination structure, values of Shannon-Wiener (H ‘) and Berger-Parker biodiversity indices (d), as well as fauna value index (FV) of 10 different weevil assemblages occurring in anthropogenic environments of five regions in Polish part of the Western Carpathian Mts., in aspect of the use of these herbivorous beetles for environmental assessment. The study in 2016 was carried out using the quantitative sweep net method. The results show a diversified extent of degradation of the studied biotopes. Environments more changed have lower values of the analyzed indices in comparison with less modified biotopes. The application of the FV index allows also to know the fauna values of species, and together with biodiversity indices, for a better assessment of the nature value of a given biotope. The results of the study support the usefulness of weevils as indicators for assessment of environmental changes