The influence of the environmental and landscape values on the possible mitigation of the investment pressure
The welfare growth causes the up-scaling of aspirations, needs and expectations concerning the living standards, in this of the quality of living space. There grows the social consciousness that satisfaction of such superficial needs can bring losses in the longer perspective, exceeding their immediate, often apparent advantages. The investment, spatial planning and urban design practice deliver examples of the inhabitants care for the environmental and landscape values, whereat often they concern the practical dimension of their living space, not only for the universal dimension of the environmental or climatic threats. This „practical thinking” about spatial values facilitates the initiation of ecological solutions within the transformations and the re-use of land. It moderates or mitigates the space appropriating processes and the investment pressure.
Zbigniew W. CZERNIAKOWSKI i Marta GARGAŁA-POLAR
Rain gardens as a way of retarding loss of waste water in urban green areas
Rain gardens are one of the simplest and highly effective ways to manage rainwater. Founded in the ground or in a container, contrary to appearances, they resemble “ordinary gardens”, However, thanks to carefully selected species of hydrophyte plants, they become a natural water reservoir, especially in urban green areas. In many European countries and the US, research and design of rain gardens is one of the most current tasks of spatial planning and landscape architecture. Also in Poland in recent years it has been decided to implement this type of hydrotechnical buildings in the urban landscape.They arise on the citizens’ initiative or are part of the commune budget. Regardless of the source of funding, they form the core of activities related to adaptation to climate changeand slowing down the loss of rainwater in urban areas.
Ecological effects of multi-annual activities of the sewage treatment plant of the potato industry plant in Iława
The study contains materials on the functioning of the sewage treatment plant of the Potato Industry Plant in Iława. Potato wastewater, with a large load of organic pollutants, was discharged via pipeline to forest areas (fresh coniferous forest Peucedano-Pinetum), and then sprinkled in forest habitat using a system of pipelines and sprinklers. The paper presents the reaction of vegetation and forest habitat to the impact of sewage as well as the ecological consequences of this impact. In addition, the process of spontaneous regeneration of disturbed forest habitat after cessation of irrigation with sewage was shown.
Retardation of changes in peripheral areas of cities – investment strategy or inaction?
Urban regeneration occupies an increasingly important place in the Polish development policy and cooperation between the state government and cities. Thanks tothe support for Polish local governments financed by the 2014-2020 Technical Assistance Operational Programme, more than 1,400 communes in Poland developed regenerationprogrammes and undertook appropriate activities, mainly in downtownareas. On the other hand the potential of invested and abandoned peripheral areas is rarely perceived and enhanced in the regeneration programmes. The purpose of the article is to present the reasons for ignoring this potential in in-depth diagnoses and to analyse examples of retardation of re-using these areas as a conscious investment strategy forlocal governments.
Regional identity in spatial planning – Wielkopolska 2020+. Reflections and comments
On the bacgroundof data from FAO report ” The State of the World Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture” andreport of the Intergovernmental Science Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services:„Global Assessement report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services”(both publishedin 2019)reflecting problems with reaching goals of Aichi Targets the need for improveingpublic awareness on biodiversity is discussed.In such context the proces of design and development of the GlobalCommunicatin Strategy for the post-2020 global biodiversity framework is presented as preparation to the 15th Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP 15).
Regional identity in spatial planning – Wielkopolska 2020+. Reflections and comments
Regional identity is a special case of social and cultural identity. It refers to a clearly defined and delimited territory, its specific social, cultural, economic and topographic features that distinguish it from others. It can be presented in various approaches (psychological, urban-architectural, geographical, anthropological and ethnographic, historical, political, economic, sociological), which makes it possible to diagnose the state of identity in a specific region. The regional identity of Wielkopolska refers to the region, both physico-geographical and historical, located in central-western Poland within the Wielkopolska Lake District andthe Wielkopolska Lowland. This area is also identified with the extent of its administrative ownership (Wielkopolska Voivodship).The region’s development strategy is implemented through the voivodship spatial development plan. Its adoption belongs to theexclusive property of the voivodship self-government assembly. This plan defines, among others voivodship spatial development conditions, spatial development models and spatial policy. To a large extent, it is an indicator of the region’s identity, which is especially visible in the case of planning arrangements regarding cultural heritage. Although it is not a generally binding act of local law, it nevertheless binds municipalities when drawing up their own planning documents. It creates an opportunity toprotect areas and facilities of cultural tourism interest against degradation or complete destruction. An important message is the commitment to co-responsibility of local governments for the common space and its cultural heritage. To counteract the processes of landscape destruction through suburbanization processes conducive to the reduction of open areas in voivodship plans, the need to protect and promote natural and cultural landscapes is emphasized, which will enable, among others preservation of historical cultural landscapes. Keeping open areas as undeveloped in a situation of tremendous investment pressure may be an example of retarding the loss of regional identity, which however requires a lot of determination from local authorities.The use of biosphere space, its landscapes and ecosystems should be holistic. Just like retardation, which, if it would succeed, must be understood also as a self-limiting processes of the human population, not only as slowing theuse of the environmentresources.
Aleksander KIRYLUK i Joanna KOSTECKA
Cultivation of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) in Polish rural areas
Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a species of crop plants with special properties and great utilityfrom antiquity to the present. The purpose of the work is to present its cultivation in the Polish countryside in historical terms, as well as in terms of the current need to create natural and socio-economic conditions for sustainable development with its participation. The analysis of available materials indicates that the largest areas of flax growing occurred in Poland in the 19th and 20th centuries, when it competed with cotton as a raw material for the production of textile products. In the interwar period in Poland, the textile industry for processing linen was well developed. Large quantities of high-quality linseed oil were also produced. In the 1990s, the production of flax decreased in favor of the oilseed crop area. Action should now be taken to renew the cultivation of this valuable plant.
Stanisław KNUTELSKI i Emilia KNUTELSKA
Insects transforming wastes for useful biomass as the support of retardation
Joanna KOSTECKA, Mariola GARCZYŃSKA i Sławomir PROGOROWICZ
Recognition of life cycle (LCA) assessment elements as a support for the organization of sustainable waste management and education
Every element of human activity has an impact on the environment, and the life cycle of most of them is long and complex. The adverse impact of municipal waste on the environment must be considered in many overlapping areas. Therefore, it is expedient to undertake effective analyzes and actions aimed at minimizing the impact of services in waste management on the environment in all phases of the life cycle of this activity, and especially in those where the impact is greatest.The study presents our own attempt to interpret the principles of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) in waste management on the example of city municipal waste management in Rzeszow. A fragment of his activity was confronted with the effects of cooperation with the residents of the Rzeszów commune. Within this cooperation, two types of behavior of the residents were distinguished: a / collecting segregated waste and b/collecting waste without segregation. The financial data appearing in the enterprise, depending on the types of behavior of residents mentioned, has been compiled and presented.
Alternative and exotic sources of animal protein in human nutrition in the context of rational use of environment resources
Intensification of livestock farming, consumerism prevailing in wealthy countries aswell as excessive consumption and waste of food significantly contribute to the progressive degradation of the natural environment. Population growth is associated with increasing demand for nutrients, including animal protein. Practical implementation of the rules of sustainable development is linked with a necessity to seek innovative solutions, toensure human well-being by meeting such essential needs as access tofood. More and more commonly appearing in the markets within the European Union countries, in addition to the traditional meats, exotic types of meat may effectively supplement the human diet. Alternatives to the meat from food animals in the near future may include insect proteins and meat produced in vitro. Large scale production of insect protein and cultured meat ismore environment friendly than livestock farming.
Tomasz PIECHOWIAK, Radosław JÓZEFCZYK i Maciej BALAWEJDER
Processing waste from onion production in the functional food
In the paper a review of the current state of research works described in the literature and related to use of onion skins in the production of so-called functional food, is presented. The review was started by discussing the impact of antioxidants on the functional properties and health benefits of food and their role in the prevention of civilization diseases. Onion skin is waste generated during onion processing in the food industry and agriculture. As it turns out, this material has a high content of antioxidant compounds, mainly flavonoids (2-10 g / kg of onion skins). In the review current methods of the separation antioxidants, including those used in our own work, from the abovementioned skin, are discussed.
Roman RUDNICKI, Mieczysław KLUBA, Aleksandra JEZIERSKA-THÖLE, Barbara SZYDA i Łukasz WIŚNIEWSKI
Natural fertilization in the structure of fertilization in sustainable agriculture – on the example of Poland
The aim of this paper was to describe the state (as of 2010), structure by type (natural and mineral fertilisation, taking into account doses of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus) and spatial diversification of fertilisation in the Polish agriculture (16 voivodships and 314 poviats). The studies of these issues concentrated on examining the impact of the external features of agriculture –natural and man-made ones. What has been demonstrated is the presence of a strong spatial diversification of fertilising procedures, mostly due to the impact of man-made conditions: historical and urban. It has transpired that the territorial patterns of fertilisation are bi-polar in nature: on the one hand, there are areas dominated by natural fertilisation (mostly north-eastern Poland); on the other hand, there are places where mineral fertilisation is prevalent (mostly northern and western Poland).Taking into consideration the planned Agricultural Census (2020) as well as the importance of pro-enviormental actions within The Common Agriculture Policy, the used metod of the comprehensive analysis of the feritilization for 2010 year constitutes a good starting point to the evaluation of the occurent changes.
Bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals in maize grown for fodder
The aim of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals in corn plants grown on the increasing area of land used for fodder for cattle, mainly dairy cattle, whose breeding has became the dominant direction of agricultural development in Podlasie region. The study was carried out on the basis of light and medium soils samples and maize samples grown for fodder for dairy cows. The total content of cadmium, lead, nickel, copper and zinc was determined in soil samples as well as in plants. On the basis of the obtained results, the bioaccumulation coefficients of the above-mentioned metals in maize plants were calculated. Itwas found that the soils, on which maize was grown, were mostly characterized by the content of heavy metals at the level of geochemical background. A small part was contaminated with cadmium on the first level according to JUNG numbers. Maize, due to its heavy metal content, met the requirements for fodder plants. The bioaccumulation coefficients of metals in maize were most often low and adequate to their low content in soils, although in the case of cadmium and lead they indicate an off-soil source.