Okładka tomu 25-2

Issue 25(2) – 2021

Rzeszów 2021


Small retention in mountain forests of south Poland as an element of water resources protection

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2021.25.2.1

Conducting retention activities is an effective way to increase the country’s water
resources. Of the European countries, Poland is one of the poorest countries in terms of
water. They are almost 2.7 times smaller than the EU average. The total annual amount of
precipitation in our country does not change, but we observe its intensity at short intervals.
This ensures more intense and faster drainage, which causes damage and a risk of drought.
Water retention is one of the first “front lines” in the fight against flooding. Increasing the
retention capacity of areas contributes significantly to improving water management. The
article presents the functioning of the water retention system in mountain forests. Small
retention plays a positive role in improving the conditions of forest areas and is an
important element necessary for the preservation and improvement of the natural

Full article

Application of descriptive geometry in shaping of the landscape architect

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2021.25.2.2

The work of a landscape architect is an important element in creating a nature- and
people-friendly reality. The efficiency of technical documentation preparation is an
important skill that a landscape architect should be equipped with, along with the broad
awareness and sensitivity of biological diversity. This article provides an overview of
descriptive geometry as a tool that facilitates good spatial planning for a landscape
architect. It also includes a handbook of basic representations of descriptive geometry,
which is used by a landscape architect in the graphic part of technical documentation. This
research can be useful in developing design skills that can also be used as a model for
teachers of design-related subjects at both secondary and university levels.

Full article

Patryk JACEJKO and Izabela KORAB
Structure of earthworms community in maize and wheat cultivation

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2021.25.2.3

Earthworms play an important role in the soil. When digging corridors, they loosen it,
aerate it and mix minerals with the organic part. They contribute significantly to the
improvement of its fertility. These organisms are also commonly used in monitoring the
condition of soils with varying degrees of anthropopressure. The aim of the research was to
analyze the structure of earthworm communities. The research was carried out on two sites
(in the cultivation of maize and wheat). Lumbricidae were harvested by the mixed method,
i.e. 25 x 25 x 25 cm soil blocks were analyzed. They were sorted by hand for the extraction
of earthworms. 10 liters of 0.4% formalin solution were used to rinse oligochaetes from the
deeper layers of the soil. The soil under wheat was characterized by a higher Lumbricidae
density. Four species of earthworms have been found here. A. rosea had the greatest share
in the community of earthworms in both sites. Research should be continued over a longer
period of time.

Full article

Arkadiusz KAMIŃSKI, Janusz JAKÓBIEC and Agnieszka PUSZ
The fuel distribution sites -trends and expectations

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2021.25.2.4

The technical progress leads to economic growth, which increases the demand for energy,
including primary energy. One way to generate the energy needed to run engines and vehicles is
through fuel. The paper presents the genesis of the establishment of fuel distribution facilities,
gives the main aspects of their introduction in the world, legal requirements for such facilities
under Polish legislation and their impact on the environment. The data available on the number
of vehicles registered for alternative fuels in Europe and the development directions of fuel
distribution, companies that want to achieve climate neutrality while supplying transport fuels to
recipients at the same time, were analyzed. It was found that the energy transformation and the
type of energy carriers and motor fuels used to power motor vehicles will be related to the
change and evolution of fuel distribution facilities.

Full article

Żaneta KAWA, Kamil DROGOŃ, Justyna KOC-JURCZYK and Łukasz Jurczyk
Municipal waste management in the Pogórze Dynowskie

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2021.25.2.5

This article compares the theoretical estimate with the actual amount of municipal
waste received in the area of five rural municipalities that are part of the local Association
of Dynów Foothills Communes (Związek Gmin Pogórza Dynowskiego, Podkarpacie
Province in Southeastern Poland). The theoretical waste mass in 2019 calculated on the
basis of statistical indicators of waste generation was even 60% higher than the actual
mass of the collected waste. Theoretically, 27% of the waste generated in the studied area
should subsequently be subject to the different recycling processes, while the waste
database showed that only 14% of the waste mass was collected separatel y in
morphological categories such as: paper and cardboard, glass, plastics, metals and
biodegradable materials. Moreover, in all of the considered municipalities WEEE, bulky
waste, and mixed packaging waste were collected, which in total accounted for 30% of
selectively collected waste.

Full article

Student’s attitudes and behaviors regarding the application of personal protection measures during the Covid-19 pandemia

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2021.25.2.6

A survey has established students’ behavior when using personal protective equipment
during the COVID-19 pandemic. Respondents were shown to be aware of the risk of
improperly disposing of potentially contaminated masks and gloves. They should be
disposed of as hazardous waste, but leaving this waste behind is becoming a global
problem. Promoting the proper management of this waste can encourage consumers to
protect themselves and the environment in the future.

Full article

Biomass waste amount from nurseryproduction and possibilities of its usage

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2021.25.2.7

Thesis presents the statement of wood waste biomass from nursery production in the
Podkarpacie voivodeship in the years 2007-2015. The conducted analysis showed that the
production industry is the basic source of biomass, which can be used for energy purposes
and as an alternative to fossil fuels. The fruit trees production period supplied over 5.7
million kg of wood waste biomass which achived the energy potential of 106,238 MJ, that
represented alternative to coal energy for over 248,329 kg of hard coal.

Full article

Karolina MROCZEK
Freeganism according to opinions expressed by students of the University of Rzeszów

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2021.25.2.8

Food waste is a global problem which in recent years has become a challenge for
economy and for the society. Food is wasted at various stages of production and
distribution, by farmers, manufacturers, distributors, as well as restaurants and stores.
However, most food is wasted in households. Among others the idea of freeganism is a
response to unsustainable consumption. A survey conducted among students of the
University ofRzeszów, respondents sometimes throw away food (96%), although they feel
resistance to do it (98%). Most of them (86%) buy food that is discounted because of
damage or a short expiry date. Many students know what Freeganism egzisting and support
this trend (61%), but 76% did not participate in this phenomenon.

Full article

Selective collection of municipal waste in households

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2021. 25.2.9

The amount of municipal waste generated is increasing every year. Proper collection of
municipal waste in households is of great importance for good management. By properly
recycling waste, it can be turned into products, materials or substances that are used for
primary or other purposes, reducing its landfill.

Full article

Patrycja WIECH
Municipal waste in selected households – a case study

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2021.25.2.10

Against the background of selected problems of municipal waste management in the era
of the Coronavirus-19 threat, it was undertaken to determine the qualitative and
quantitative characteristics of waste generated by exemplary producers living on a rural
farm in the Rakszawa commune in the town of Węgliska and a municipal farm in the Łańcut
commune in the city of Łańcut.

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