Wacław JARECKI and Justyna KIPA
Rapeseed production in the EU, Poland and the Podkarpackie Province in the aspect of the development of renewable energy sources
The aim of the study is to present changes in rapeseed production in the EU, Poland and the Podkarpackie Province over recent years. The obtained results indicate that rapeseed harvest in the EU was stable in the years 2010-2017. There was a downward trend in sown area and an increase in yield. In Poland, in 2010-2018, both harvest, crop area and seed yields showed an upward trend. In the Podkarpackie Province, rapeseed production increased in the period under consideration. This was the result of a significant increase in the cultivation area with an upward trend in yielding. The production status of rapeseed in the EU, Poland and the Podkarpackie Province depends on changing habitat conditions and market demand for raw material. The current generally stable scale of rapeseed production in the discussed regions is mainly the result of seed management for food and industrial purposes, including biofuel.
Anna JĘCZMYK, Jarosław UGLIS i Krzysztof KASPRZAK
Smog and tourism
The quality of the environment is of great importance for tourist traffic, however, many activities of the tourism industry and tourists may have a negative impact on this environment. One of the problems that also affects tourism is poor air quality, including in tourist destinations. The World Tourism Organization and the World Health Organization intend to attach air quality indicators to the tourist recommendations of individual places, which can be a problem for many attractive tourist destinations, especially cities that have polluted air. The aim of the article was to analyze the available data on air quality in individual voivodships in Poland and compare them with the indicators of the development of the tourist function.
Cultural tourism in the natural dimension
Tourism has now become not only a kind of mass ritual with significant economic potential, but also an important cultural message. Covering various areas of human activity, tourism also applies to works related to broadly understood culture, including aspects of natural heritage. A number of international legal acts point to the interdependence of natural and cultural heritage and the need to treat them as an integral whole. There are close links between the protection of cultural and natural diversity that are of interest to cultural tourism. The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity states that cultural diversity will be expressed in the originality and multitude of identities that characterize the groups and societies that make up humanity. In accordance with the Convention on Biological Diversity, cultural diversity and traditional farming methods with which endangered natural values are inextricably also require protection. Man is biologically and culturally shaped in specific conditions of the natural environment, which he considers suitable for himself. However, he transfers his anthropocentric values to nature, which has nothing to do with them. He watches it mainly through myths shaped in a culture that spreads and perpetuates them. Many cultural tourism goals are closely linked to the state of nature resources and the natural environment. There is a deeply humanistic sense of natured research and nature protection. This is important for the permanence and quality of human existence.
Natalia KORNAK and Joanna KOSTECKA
Elements of social perceiving of management of medicine waste
Pharmaceutical wastes penetrate the environment and pose a threat to surface water and soil pollution with active pharmaceutical substances. Risk factors also include a social factor, such as a lack of consumer awareness about the need for responsible use of medicines and the management of medicines waste, in order to minimize the risk of leakage of pharmacologically active substances into the environment. The aim of the article was to analyze selected information on medicines waste management within households. Local analysis was performed on the example of the Lubaczów poviat.
Mariola KREMPA, Izabela KORAB, Patryk JACEJKO i Anna MAZUR-PĄCZKA
Relationship of the residents of Rzeszów to renewable energy sources
Over the years, we have been observing faster development of the economy. Its development drives the extraction of fossil raw materials and contributes to the implementation of new technologies. Resources are limited, which increases the cost of their extraction. The depletion of fossil raw materials leads to a reduction in the profitability of investments and entails high mining costs. Energy obtained from conventional energy sources has a negative impact on the natural environment. As a result of burning these raw materials, large amounts of carbon dioxide and sulfur get into the atmosphere, which intensifies the greenhouse effect. The advantage of operating renewable energy sources is their lower environmental impact. Using water, wind and sun, we can obtain energy in an unconventional way, thanks to which we protect the environment and save ecosystems that we have left. The research results indicate the growing awareness of the inhabitants of Rzeszow in this respect.
Sylwia KUCHARYK, Mariusz RUDY, Marian GIL, Renata STANISŁAWCZYK i Karolina MROCZEK
Unconventional methods for the preservation of meat products and their impact on human health and the environment
The purpose of food preservation is to prolong shelf life and shelf life and to keep the product unchanged. People have for centuries perfected various preservation techniques to find the perfect methods to ensure microbiological safety of food while maintaining nutritional value and taste values. Currently, promising methods for fixing meat products include: high pressure technology, ultrasound, pulsating electric and magnetic fields, pulsating light flux and low-temperature plasma. These methods not only make it possible to obtain food with a long shelf life, safe for health and without preservatives, but also are safer for the natural environment compared to traditional methods.
Mateusz MICHALICHA i Grzegorz PITUCHA
The impact of landfills on birds
The increase in consumption makes landfills an important element of reality. What inhabitants of cities and villages perceive as rubbish, birds treat as a source of food, and sometimes material for building nests. In addition to benefits in the form of a food base and a place of rest during migration, landfills may, however, pose a threat to birds. Adverse consequences of birds living in landfills include, among others their food poisoning, mutilations, injuries, bacterial infections, the transmission of pathogens and diseases, diet changes lowering reproductive capacity and changes in migration patterns – leading to exhaustion of birds and exposure to other dangers. Birds also play other roles in landfills, e.g. enrich biodiversity by transferring propagules of plants, both native but also foreign and invasive. Waste managers and public administrative bodies should take actions to reduce the negative impact of landfills on birds, and thus on the whole environment.
Karolina MROCZEK, Sylwia KUCHARYK, Mariusz RUDY i Janusz R. MROCZEK
Options for utilisation of waste from meat industry in compliance with the rules of bioeconomy
Playing an important part in domestic economy, meat industry mainly comprises companies involved in slaughter of animals, meat boning and cutting, and production of processed meats. Despite cutting-edge infrastructures and advanced technologies, abattoirs and meat processing plants are still ranked among those enterprises which generate waste and as a result significantly contribute to deterioration of the environment. The greatest problems are connected with abattoir waste, and meat meal as well as meat and bone meal produced from such waste. The prohibition to use this type of fodder in livestock farming has led to additional problems in the rational utilisation of the waste. As a result of changes in energy laws, there is increasing interest in waste biomass from meat processing, which may constitute an important source of energy for power industry. Thermal utilisation of animal meals may be as an important source of energy and serve as an example of practical implementation of the principles of sustainable development and bioeconomy.
Anita ZAPAŁOWSKA i Tomasz GACEK
Economic aspects of obtaining and using biogas
Biogas is produced as a result of methane fermentation in landfills or during operation of a biogas plant. It is used is for the production of heat and electricity. Treated and subjected to a compression process, it is used as a transport fuel. The economic efficiency assessment of a biogas installation depends on the feedstock used and the possibility of using the heat generated. The economic aspects of a biogas plant’s operation are determined by its investment costs, co-financing, costs of biomass obtained, installation efficiency and final heat acquired along with electricity production.