Anna JĘCZMYK and Krzysztof KASPRZAK
SUSTAINABLE CULINARY TOURISM
The food production is the basic and inalienable function of agriculture, but farms also create a number of goods and services of another type. The culinary tourism is related with agriculture and rural areas to, which can develop in these areas in the concept of sustainable development. The aim of the article is to introduce the problems of culinary tourism in the concept of sustainable development.
ABRYS PUBLISHING HOUSE AS EDUCATIONAL TASK. RETARDATION DISSEMINATION AS AN ELEMENT OF ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION. PART II
In contrast to formal and especially academic schooling – recognizing in our country goals of environmental education, especially the popularization as activities of somewhat worse kind – non-formal education tends to raise real knowledge and awareness of citizens. It is to translate into possible involvement of a large number of residents in creative activities. The activities of units engaged in non-informal education is not a derivative of the budget of state institutions and local government. Currently, environmental education conducted outside the structures of secondary and higher education, in which ABRYS Communal Publisher is actively involved, it becomes increasingly important part of the civic education aimed at developing an intelligent society that accepts the principle of sustainable development, being able to evaluate the state of ecological safety and participating in decision-making processes. Magazines of ABRYS Communal Publishing, as well as business conference training, educational portals, competitions, trade and e-edition now form a compact, logical, complementary element of teaching and education about the characteristics of the XXI century modern alternative education – form of kind opposition to the state and the formal system teaching at different degrees. Alternative education is opposition to the imposed values, only correct solutions to school and academic anxiety and boredom, today role of teachers, lecturers and teaching methodology used.
THE ROLE OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF VARIOUS OCULAR DISEASES AND AGE- RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION DEVELOPMENT
Climate change can affect human health. Since 1970 scientists have observed that production of numerous substances to atmosphere is responsible for ozone depletion development. It has led to an increase in solar UV radiation reaching the Earth. There is strong evidence that overexposure to the sun is a major risk factor for pterygium, carcinoma, cataract and age-related macular degeneration. It is our responsibility to protect ozone layer and global environment.
Christopher N. LOWE, Kevin R. BUTT and Kevin CHEYNIER
DEVELOPMENT OF A FIELD-BASED EARTHWORM MARK-RELEASE-RECAPTURE TECHNIQUE FOR BIOMONITORING
Biomonitoring in soil systems presents difficulties in retrieval and differentiation of test organisms from local populations. The aim of this study was to develop a simple method of in situ containment and efficient retrieval of earthworms. Visible Implant Elastomer (VIE) tags were used to identify earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa introduced to unpolluted pasture or a polluted site. Containment PVC tubes of different height (inserted differently into the soil and covered or not covered by a mesh) were used. Highest recovery rates for both species came from use of 0.3 m tubes (100% for A. caliginosa and 71% for L. rubellus). This study confirmed the feasibility of using VIE tags to identify and aid recovery of introduced earthworms from field experiments. Results suggested that recovery rates were influenced by behavioural differences in ecological groupings and site-specific factors. There is scope for further improvement in the tagging procedure, mortality assessment and investigation of containment for earthworms.
ANALYSIS OF UNEVENNESS OF THE WASTEWATER INFLOW INTO THE ZAMOŚĆ WWTP
Knowledge of the quality and quantity of wastewater flowing into the municipal wastewater treatment plant is essential for the development of detailed balance sheets that are used for the preparation of technological projects for the construction, modernization or expansion of the WWTP. Unevenness of the wastewater inflow into the WWTP is a major factor causing disturbance in the proper course of wastewater treatment processes. The flow of wastewater to the WWTP is subject to significant fluctuations in cycle, hourly, weekly, monthly and quarterly. The aim of the work is to determine the uneven wastewater inflow into the Zamość WWTP in the years 2015-2016.
CHANGES IN WATER TEMPERATURE AND ICE PHENOMENA IN THE NER RIVER (CENTRAL POLAND) IN THE YEARS 1965-2014
The paper presents long-term changes in water temperature and ice conditions in the Ner River located in Central Poland. A considerable increase in water temperature has been determined over the last fifty years, amounting to 0.24 °C dek-1. The increase was statistically significant at a level of p=0.05. In the monthly scale, the highest increase in temperature was recorded in July (0.37 °C dek-1), April (0.35 °C dek-1), and December and January (0.34 °C dek-1). In two cases (September and October), a slight negative tendency was recorded, although it was not statistically significant. In reference to the terms of appearance of ice phenomena, a delay by 1.9 day·dek-1 was determined in the analysed period. The cessation of ice phenomena showed a negative tendency – they ceased earlier by 2.5 day·dek-1. Due to this, the persistence of ice phenomena was reduced. The recorded changes are a result of an increase in air temperature and anthropopressure.
Beata RASZKA and Krzysztof KASPRZAK
LANDSCAPE PARK – POSSIBILITIES OF THE AREA PROTECTION
The basic meaning for existing and protection of landscaped parks has the specific of their area. This is due not only to the physiognomy of the landscape and natural resources of animate and inanimate nature but also to the value of cultural resources, the existing state of development and the awareness of the local population. This all creates our natural and cultural heritage. To carry out protective measures for landscaped parks, protection plans are drawn up taking into account the characteristics and evaluation of the state of nature, identification and assessment of existing and potential internal and external threats, characteristics and evaluation of social and economic impact, analysis of the effectiveness of existing methods of protection, characterization and evaluation of the spatial development, the results of the landscape audit. The most important indications contained in the plans of protection include: the adoption of functional-spatial division, separation of functional-spatial zones which are areas of conservation implementation and determination of the way of protection within each functionalspatial zone. The basis for extracting functional and spatial zones, for which a range of work related to nature conservation is determined, is their spatial-nature consistency. Landscape parks, because of the space it occupies (8.09% of the country) and their official role and functions should be an important element of the system of nature protection in Poland. They are the only one organizational structure performing tasks in the field of nature and landscape protection in the conditions of doing business in their area. Fulfilling the role of centers of education in the broad sense should contribute to the preservation of the regions identity and distinctiveness. In the opinion of the Supreme Audit Office law regulations for the operation of parks are inconsistent and imprecise. They do not give any grounds for proper organization of landscaped parks activities, impede or completely prevent the realization of the basic purpose of their creation, which is to preserve existing in their area natural, historical, cultural and landscape values.
Magdalena TANONA, Paweł CZARNOTA and Bernadetta ORTYL
USE OF TRANSPLANTED THALLI OF HYPOGYMNIA PHYSODES (L.) NYL. IN ASSESSING OF THE CONTAMINATION IN RZESZÓW CITY
Evaluation was made of the air pollution level in Rzeszów city (SE Poland) caused by chemical elements: S, N, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb based on their accumulation in the transplanted Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. (lichenized Ascomycota) thalli. Samples were distributed within the city area in 37 monitoring points in the winter/spring season of 2014/2015. The average concentration of lead in the city was 3.159 mg/kg DW, and it exceeded the content of the element in relation to the reference at the average amount of 43.24%. The accumulation values of other 7 elements were comparable with those in the control sample. The results show, that bioindication method using transplanted lichen thalli, although controversial when the level of elements in the control sample is higher than the contamination in samples exposed within investigated city, may be successfully used in analysis of several months spatial distribution of an air pollution in towns.
Natalia ŻUREK, Maciej BILEK and Sebastian WÓJCIK-JACKOWSKI
THE NEED TO PRESERVE AND PROTECT DUG WELLS AS A RESERVOIR FOR DRINKING WATER
Dug wells, now classified as so-called private waterintakes, for centuries were an integral part of the Polish landscape and were used as the primary source of drinking water. These sources of drinking water are, however, specific. They are very susceptible to pollution related to agricultural and industrial activities. Consequently, every dug well requires constant supervision. But paradoxically, they are not currently under the control of the State Sanitary Inspection. Meanwhile, the importance of dug wells in the modern world, full of various threats, unexpectedly is growing. They are the source of drinking water, which is independent of possible crises, failures and intentional contamination of the collective water supply system. That’s why, dug wells can be regarded as inherited reservoir of drinking water, which should not only be subject to regular and meticulous control, but also attentive care of state institutions.