Issue 24(2) – 2020

Rzeszów 2020


Kornelia KACZMARSKA, Jan GĄSIOR, Bernadeta ALVAREZ and Małgorzata NOWAK
Formation of chemical properties of brown soil under the influence of simulated acid rainfall in a lysimeter experiment

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2020.24.2.1

In natural ecosystems, the soil reaction is stable and related to the habitat conditions. In arable soils used for agricultural purposes, there is a constant need to correct the reaction to the level corresponding to the requirements of plants. In lysimeter studies, the rate of acidification and its extent were determined in the profile of agricultural brown soil under the influence of simulated acid rainfall. It was estimated that acidification of the simulated acid rainfall, equivalent to the sum of exchange bases of the brown soil Ap level, increased the concentration of magnesium 15-fold and calcium 9-fold in lysimeter filtrates compared to washing with water. The introduced hydrogen cations eliminate alkaline cations from the soil sorption complex, and with increasing concentration they increase the leaching range in the soil profile, exchangeable aluminum appears in the upper part of the profile. The degree of saturation of the brown soil sorption complex under the influence of acidification equivalent to the sum of exchangeable bases of the Ap level decreases to zero in the top part of the profile, while in the bottom part shows a slight reaction. Under the influence of increasing acidity, the dynamics in the profile of available magnesium forms is ambiguous, the available phosphorus content increases in the A and B levels, while the available potassium content does not change significantly.

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Arkadiusz KAMIŃSKI
The impact of a circular economy on the activity of the refinery

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2020.24.2.2

The circular economy becomes a reality. It will affect all sectors of the economy, including oil refineries. Refineries will face the necessity to change business models and technological systems. On the one site, the circular economy offers potential and opportunities and new innovative technologies, and on the other site, the consequences of introducing changes. Due to changes in legislation, sectors are increasingly interested in waste management in order to reduce the amount of extracted raw materials. Chemical recycling can be an important source of input and energy for refineries and an example of the practical implementation of the principles of sustainable development and the circular economy.

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Prospects for the development of hydropower in Poland

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2020.24.2.3

The paper analyzes the current state of hydropower and the possibilities of its development. The technical hydropower potential of Poland at the level of 12 thousand. 20% of GWh/year is currently used. Possibilities of increasing installed capacity and energy production relate mainly to small hydropower in the power range up to 5 MW. The example of the Odra and Oława Rivers shows that a lot of clean and renewable energy can still be obtained. The prospects for a more intensive development of hydropower in Poland are optimistic, but there are barriers that slow down its development. Poland’s membership in the EU and environmental, climate and energy directives force the state to be significantly involved in the development of hydropower.

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Krzysztof KASPRZAK
Private collection of publications – self-reflection at the end of professional activity

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2020.24.2.4

The article presents the problem of preserving private collections of publications after the end of professional activity. It pointed to the lack of procedures for transferring a private book collections to university libraries after retirement.

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Aleksander KIRYLUK
Biogas plants in the context of the sustainable development of rural areas on the example of the Podlaskie Province

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2020.24.2.5

One of the causes of climate change is high exhaust emissions from combined heat and power plants and many case furnaces. In order to release these verbal energy sources, gradually switch to the production of electricity from renewable sources (RES). Hence, there are many sources of renewable energy. The article presents the possibility of obtaining energy from agricultural substrates. One of the methods is the production of biogas in the methane fermentation process in agricultural biogas plants. For the production of biogas in agricultural biogas plants in agricultural biogas is maize silage, slurry, and other waste from agriculture and agri-food processing. 9 biogas plants are registered in the Podlaskie Voivodship, producing about 9.5 million m3 of biogas, allowing for the production of 7.695 MWe. The substrates in these biogas plants are mainly maize and agricultural waste (slurry). The positive effects of cultivating plants for energy purposes, as well as the impact of monoculture perennial crops on the agricultural cultivation of agrocenoses were indicated.

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Use of municipal sewage sludge as a source of electrical energy

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2020.24.2.6

This work referred to the possibilities of using biogas from municipal sewage sludge in the mesophilic fermentation process at the Sewage Treatment Plant in Wola Further. In 2017, 18,308 m3 of sewage sludge was sent to the WKF, and in 2018 – 23517 m3, resulting in a referral to the cogenerator in 2018 for 21955m3 more biogas than in 2017. The work analyzed the economic efficiency of sewage sludge use in 2017 and 2018, which was 29.3% and 31.7% respectively. The presented solution for the management of municipal settlements allows achieving economic benefits while contributing to a reduction in the environmental impact.

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Klaudia KOJDER and Małgorzata ŚLIWKA
Assessment of the possibility of using ashes from biomass combustion in biological reclamation

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2020.24.2.7

Energy waste generated as a result of fuel combustion is a significant environmental problem, due to its physicochemical properties and a large amount of this waste. Fly ash and bottom ash from lignite and coal combustion are used in various fields of the economy. Ashes from biomass combustion, due to their properties, have not yet found such wide application. The article discusses the preliminary experiments related to the assessment of the properties of fluidized ashes from biomass combustion in terms of their natural use.

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Izabela KORAB and Patryk JACEJKO
The opinion of young residents on the management of municipal waste in their area

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2020.24.2.8

Municipal waste is an important feature in a waste management strategy. It is generated in each household, therefore all residents have contact with them. By sharing good practice in the proper waste management system municipalities are responsible for the domestic waste management. The situation is being constantly monitored due to the growing volumes of generated waste. The polling can be highly informative – the answers provided by young responders show, that the waste collection system in their community is correct.

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Fuel properties of municipal sewage sludge as a renewable source of energy

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2020.24.2.9

The technological properties of municipal sewage sludge indicate various possibilities of its management. They also have potential for use as a renewable energy source. The paper uses own research on the fuel properties of municipal sewage sludge, analyses the results of the research, assesses the potential of the sewage sludge as a renewable energy source and indicates the possibilities of its management. The research shows high values of combustion heat and high content of total organic matter in the analysed sewage sludge.

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Magdalena SUDOŁ and Anita ZAPAŁOWSKA
Possibilities of using straw as a local fuel in the area of the Podkarpackie Province

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2020.24.2.10

Using straw through its use in the energy sector is the optimal solution, with many advantages. The article presents the possibilities of using straw for energy purposes in Podkarpackie Province. The analysis was performed in 21 districts of Podkarpackie Province. The production, agricultural demand, surplus and energy potential of straw were estimated. The study showed that surplus for energy purposes is equal to 256 408 tones which could provide  2,666,644 GJ  energy anually. The highest energy potential of straw was recorded in the following districts: łańcucki, dębicki, ropczycko-sędziszowski, jarosławski and przemyski. While the lowest energy potential is characterised by  bieszczadzki, niżański and tarnobrzeski districts.

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Mateusz ŚLIWA and  Natalia MIAZGA
Consumer attitudes towards household waste with medicinal intended use

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2020.24.2.11

Many factors currently contribute to the high average annual cost of managing hazardous waste from the pharmaceutical group. The environmental costs of their presence in ecosystems are also rising. Consumers as integral market participants, through their attitudes, fit into the process of widely understood waste management for medicinal purposes. Description presents the essence and the most important determinants related to domestic waste of this group. The desk research method was used and a questionnaire survey was carried out on consumer attitudes towards domestic waste for medicinal purposes.

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Magdalena WIŚNIEWSKA, Agnieszka PUSZ and Dominik ROGALSKI
Development of renewable energy sources (RES) in the European Union and Poland

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2020.24.2.12

The aim of this work was to present Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the European Union and Poland. This publication reviews legal acts and documents in the range of issues connected with widely acknowledged energy and renewable energy. As well were presented perspectives of the development of Renewable Energy Sources in Poland based on currently submitted documentation on the subject of Energy Policy, existing regulations and goals that must be achieved by Poland in the following years, and the latest data on planned investments in the field of Renewable Energy Sources, such as offshore wind farms.

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