Issue 27(2) – 2023

Rzeszów 2023


Sara CIAPA and Małgorzata ŚLIWKA
Urban green areas and their inpact on the air quality and urban heat island effect on the example of the city of Kraków

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2023.27.2.1

Green areas in the city are an important factor influencing the quality of life of residents. Additionally, it positively contributes to the fight against the problems of urbanized areas, which include air pollution and high temperatures causing the occurrence of an Urban Heat Island. The article discusses topics related to the indicated problems. Moreover, using the conducted research, an analysis of air quality in Krakow was carried out. The analysis allowed for the identification of particularly problematic places, as well as the comparison of pollution levels depending on the season.

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Limiting selected production means in winter rape cultivation: challenges and opportunities for maximizing yield while maintaining ecological aspects

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2023.27.2.2

The research conducted in 2021-2022 is preliminary and its aim was to draw attention to the benefits of maintaining ecological aspects in agricultural production. The experiment compared the response of two varieties of winter rapeseed (Tigris, Riccardo KWS) to two levels of cultivation intensity and the profitability of the applied agrotechnical treatments. The research shows that the yield and chemical composition of seeds depended on the cultivation technology used. More favorable economic effects were obtained from growing

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Arkadiusz KAMIŃSKI and Agnieszka PUSZ
Water and power engineering in the face of sustainable development challenges and goal implementation

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2023.27.2.3

Knowing that the water covers 72% of the globe’s surface makes us treat it as an unlimited and universal good. The growth of the human population is related to the needs for food and energy production, and water is essential for this. Water is used in households in agriculture, in water transport, in electricity production and in all industries. The needs of individual economic sectors in terms of the use of water resources may differ and even be contradictory. Therefore, the role of proper management of water resources is very important. It should take into account both the needs of the population and the economy, as well as the requirements for the protection of water and related ecosystems, as well as issues related to protection against floods and drought, and each of us can take action to save the water.

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Michał KOPEĆ, Wojciech SZEWCZYK, Elżbieta BADACH, Michał CHWASTEK, Mariusz DACKO, Aleksandra PŁONKA and Tomasz WOJEWODZIC
Estimation of bio-waste potential in an example municipality

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2023.27.2.4

National Waste Management Plan 2028 comprises goals and tasks also in the field of selective collection of bio-waste from residents as well as increased  organic recycling by promoting composting of bio-waste by residents “at the source”. European Union guidelines require reporting and present two methods of obtaining data: indirect and direct (including surveys). Actual measurement of the input or output from the recycling process is not always possible and therefore attention is paid to the high level of confidence in the data. In 2023, an attempt was made to determine the mass of bio-waste and factors which influence it, based on  surveys in the Słomniki commune. In the Słomniki commune 3689 farms were established, of which 2709 declared composting activities. There were 30 responses of groups of people declaring composting and 15 responses of people who did not declare composting. Conducted survey researches showed high diversity of estimated mass of bio-waste generated in both groups. There is high probability of underestimating the mass of bio-waste at the municipal level, calculated taking into account the morphological composition and mass of waste generated. The underestimation of the mass of bio-waste may result from grass mulching practices, which were declared by at least 20% of respondents.

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Teresa NOGA
Selected algae taxa used in the production of biofuels

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2023.27.2.5

The concept of using algae as a raw material for biofuel production has been gaining popularity in recent years due to the surging cost of crude oil, the rapidly declining natural resources of oil, and issues related to global warming (caused by the burning of fossil fuels). Algae, characterized by lipid contents ranging from 20 to 70%, exhibit considerable potential as energy crops in cultivation. Various biofuels are produced from algae, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biobutanol, methane, and biogas. The main factors influencing algae growth are the availability and intensity of light, temperature, nutrient concentration, and CO2 availability. Microalgae are grown in open systems (ponds) or closed systems (photobioreactors). Macroalgae, on the other hand, are cultivated in coastal zones of seas or similar aquatic reservoirs. Among microalgae, Botryococcus braunii and Chlorella vulgaris are taxa that produce significant amounts of oil, while the macroalgae commonly cultivated and used for biofuel production is Macrocystis pyrifera.

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Legal changes introduced in 2023 and projects in the field of photovoltaic and wind power plants – analysis, interpretation and impact of amanded normative acts

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2023.27.2.6

The article presents legal changes introduced in 2023, which affect the regulation of the development process of renewable energy installations projects (photovoltaic and wind power plants). Legal changes qualifying photovoltaic systems as a projects potentially capable of having a significant impact on the environment were indicated. Starting with a practical example of photovoltaic power plant, problems of interpretation of amended text of the EIA regulation were pointed out. Amendments to the so-called Assessment Act were also indicated, which simplified the procedure for issuing a decision on environmental conditions for projects implemented within the boundaries of landscape parks and protected landscape areas. Then, legal changes in spatial planning system in the context of investments in the field of photovoltaic power plants were analysed. An analysis was also made of the act defining the location possibilities of wind farms.

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Nano- and microplastics – pollution of the 21st century

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2023.27.2.7

Plastics are an important material in our economy and everyday life. Thanks to low production costs and the ability to form them into various shapes, they have become the most universal material in the world. Plastics are mass-produced for applications in packaging, construction, electrical and electronics, textiles, transportation and agriculture. Global plastic production in 2021 amounted to 391 million tonnes. As a result of physical, biological, chemical or thermal processes, these materials decompose, forming particles called microplastics (MP) and/or nanoplastics (NP), which have become a significant environmental pollutant in the last decade. These xenobiotics are found in the air, water, soil, as well as in living organisms. They may also cause adverse effects on human health.

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The EMAS eco-management and audit scheme in Poland in implementing a sustainable development strategy in the enterprise

DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2023.27.2.8

The article presents the elements of the environment-friendly attitude of enterprises in the implementation of the EMAS eco-management and audit scheme. The benefits of its implementation were demonstrated, but also the barriers and difficulties in its implementation. EMAS is an instrument created by the European Commission and regulated by the European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) No 1221/2009 of 25.11.2009.

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